Database Management Basics

Database management is a method of coordinating the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to users and applications, editing it as needed and monitoring changes to data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It’s a component of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) that allowed for the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a broad range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables which organize data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields, known as attributes, which provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type currently. This design is based upon normalizing data to make it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data because it does not require the changing of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of different external views based on different data models. It can include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.

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