Cross-chain bridges and associated risks Chainlink Documentation

For IBC to be exclusively utilized for specific types of cross-chain messaging , a standard implementation must first be created. Currently, such a standard exists for token transfers and other standards are being developed for other kinds of cross-chain messages. The power of Interchain Accounts is that by interacting directly with an account on another chain, it bypasses the need for a standard implementation of IBC. All that is required is that the instruction logic is compatible with the core programming logic of the IBC-compatible chain.

Introduction to blockchain bridges

The working of a blockchain bridge can involve exchange of decentralized identities, off-chain information and smart contract calls. Blockchain promises the benefits of decentralization and freedom from institutional or individual control. The vast majority of blockchain networks are autonomous communities what is a blockchain bridge with separate economies. As a result, one of the unavoidable requirements for the ecosystem of decentralized applications is blockchain bridges. The limitation on interactions between several blockchain networks places boundaries on decentralization, the fundamental tenet of blockchain technology.

Introducing the Optimism bridge Truffle box

In addition, all blockchain networks feature their own token standard and framework, offering opportunities for development. The expansion of blockchain projects, such as in the DeFi landscape, creates the necessity for bridges. As the number of projects in DeFi would continue increasing in the future, users will need interoperability of assets among different networks. Interestingly, a blockchain bridge offers the foundation for advancing interoperability within the dApps and crypto ecosystems. Hash-Locking (Kang et al., 2007; Dai et al., 2020; Feng et al., 2021a), known as the Hash time lock contract, is a cross-chain technology solution to exchange assets between chains using a hash lock and a time lock.

Introduction to blockchain bridges

It can also work with Bridged assets smart contract, where Multichain is responsible for minting assets on chains. This allows a generalisation of Bridges, so that assets are not restricted to having to return to their source chain before being sent to another chain. This makes for a cost effective solution for users, especially if the asset originated on Ethereum. So, to start things off, you should note that there are two major types of blockchain bridges – centralized, and decentralized ones. They are both very preference-based, and will thus suit different people, too. However, if you’re just starting out, I’d recommend you go with the centralized bridges – these are much simpler to use and get into, in general.

Certified Blockchain Developer™ Interactive Live Training

We will be using ChainSafe’s bridge repository, to easily set up a robust and secure bridge. Past L2 Truffle Boxes for Optimism and Arbitrium were built without support for bridging in mind. In this new iteration of Truffle Boxes, we’re focusing on demonstrating bridging support for popular L2 networks. Users can access more apps and exploit the strengths of various networks. Degree in electronics and telecommunication engineering from Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, Vietnam, in 2011, and the Ph.D. degree in computer science and engineering from Kyung Hee University , South Korea, in 2018. From March to August 2018, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher with KHU.

  • This is akin to a peer-to-peer network where each node acts as a “router” that holds an “inventory” of assets of both the source and destination chain.
  • Hop functions by engaging market makers to provide liquidity at the receiving network in exchange for small incentives.
  • Consensus protocols can build the technical mechanism of cryptocurrency and create their asset value in the market, which can be used to stabilize the overall price.
  • Relayers watch for events on one chain and perform necessary action using those events on the other chain.
  • Hash locking is widely used in the technical architecture of the Lightning Network, which is essentially a mechanism for securely performing zero-confirmation transactions using hash-time-locked smart contracts.
  • In general,on-chain scaling allows blockchains to scale with more flexible systems and larger block sizes, thus allowing blockchain networks to scale to larger transaction volumes in real-time.

The consensus layer mainly encapsulates the network nodes’ various consensus algorithms, so the consensus layer’s scaling solution is mainly to configure and optimize the consensus mechanism. A consensus mechanism is a set of rules that allows all participating nodes to agree on the outcome of a transaction in a blockchain network, ensuring that a decentralized blockchain system can make each transaction consistent and correct across all network nodes. The Consensus Mechanism aims to address the “Byzantine failures” (chuang et al., 2021), which is a consistency issue for distributed data systems, by creating a fair and effective method of managing nodes to reach a consensus on the design ethos.

2 The development of blockchain cross-chain technology

With all the different blockchains that exist today, each with different underlying technologies and consensus mechanisms, the need for blockchain bridges can not be overstated. Stargate is a fully composable cross-chain bridge that eliminates the use of wrapped tokens by maintaining the native assets being ported between blockchains. The major drawback of most bridges is their inability to port native assets across chains. Stargate leverages unified liquidity pools to achieve instant finality and allow users to bridge native assets directly to non-native networks. Since Facebook officially changed its name to Meta in Oct. 2021, the metaverse has become a new norm of social networks and three-dimensional virtual worlds.

Introduction to blockchain bridges

It contains contracts that interact with the Optimism bridge on L1 and L2, along with a set of migrations for deploying contracts, calling functions, and passing messages and values. Some externally verified bridges are secured by multisig wallets.Ronin is one example. Multisig wallets are also referred to as m-of-n multisigs, with M being the required number of signatures or keys and N being the total number of signatures or keys (m≤n). This means that an attacker only needs to exploit M keys to be able to hack the whole system.

Flavors of Standalone Multichain Architecture

Let’s say you want to exchange ETH on Ethereum Mainnet for ETH onArbitrum ↗. Like the currency exchange we made for EUR, we need a mechanism to move our ETH from Ethereum to Arbitrum. In this case,Arbitrum has a native bridge ↗that can transfer ETH from Mainnet onto Arbitrum. Bridges are doing amazing work for the space and help foster interoperability and scaling infrastructure. It’s always vital to do your own research before moving assets through a bridge, as some will be better suited to your needs than others. Keep the Lindy Effect in mind when evaluating new concepts in the blockchain space, which basically means the longer something has been around, the more likely it is to live longer.

Introduction to blockchain bridges

It also permits the cross-chain transfer of assets and information . Users can also utilize the advantages of other chains and access new platforms. In addition, programmers and developers from various blockchain ecosystems can collaborate to create newer user-facing platform solutions. Web3 has evolved into an ecosystem of L1 blockchains and L2 scaling solutions, each designed with unique capabilities and trade-offs.

Chainlink Architecture

A layer-1 protocol to enable secure, trustless interoperability between ALGO and BTC, plus other non-smart contract tokens such as DOGE, LTC, XRP and XLM. Users don’t have to trust any central authority with the responsibility for their assets. Furthermore, a trustless bridge offers complete transparency by leveraging the advantages of mathematics, computer science and cryptography for security of transactions. On top of it, users have complete control over their assets at different times. Blockchain technology has covered quite an extensive journey since its introduction to the world in 2008 with the Bitcoin whitepaper. The subsequent rise in the number of cryptocurrencies and development of blockchain networks with programmability, such as Ethereum, have created a completely new ecosystem.

3 Comparison of mainstream cross-chain schemes

The main off-chain projects deployed and run as incentive-driven models are Truebit(Teutsch and Reitwießner, 2019), a technology that helps Ethereum perform heavy or complex calculations offline . The basic principle is that users request a calculation and pay a commission. A solver under the chain provides a deposit to perform the calculation simultaneously and publishes the result. A verifier provides a deposit to rerun the above calculation and check if the solver’s result is incorrect. If not, a challenge can be launched and submitted to the chain for arbitration. IBC will be utilized to enable interchain security between Saga mainnet and every chainlet.

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